Tumour antigens are the antigenic substances produced by tumour cells that trigger immune response in the host. The immune system recognises tumour antigens as foreign substances or nonself systems. Current research involves investigation of immunogenomics biomarkers related to tumour antigens.
Neoantigens are antigens that are newly formed from altered tumour proteins. Although neoantigens are new to the immune system, they can induce immune response, and these antigens may help to predict sensitivity of tumours to immuno-oncology therapy.
Tumour Mutational Burden (TMB)
TMB is the quantitative amount of mutations present in the tumour genome. It serves as a predictive biomarker for predicting the effectiveness of immune-oncotherapies in different patients.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is said to be present if nucleotide repeats in tumour and normal healthy tissue differs. It is a result of deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) that causes the inability to inability to correct DNA replication errors leading to genomic instability
High level of neoantigen expression is found in MSI-H/dMMR tumours.