Host Environment Factors
Through complex pathways, the host environment may modulate an immune response. Beyond the limits of tumour microenvironment, a range of genetic and non-genetic host factors (e.g., such as carcinogens, radiation, pathogens, and gut microbiome) can positively or negatively modulate the body’s antitumor immune response.
Microbiome refers to the genome of the collection of bacteria residing in a specific environment (such as gut and oral cavity) within the body. Change in the composition of microbiome, may alter the immune system functioning and response. Bacterial strains comprising the microbiome can be identified using whole genome shotgun (WGS) and ribosomal sequencing techniques.