Host Environment Factors

Through complex pathways, the host environment may modulate an immune response. Beyond the limits of tumour microenvironment, a range of genetic and non-genetic host factors (e.g., such as carcinogens, radiation, pathogens, and gut microbiome) can positively or negatively modulate the body’s antitumor immune response.


Microbiome refers to the genome of the collection of bacteria residing in a specific environment (such as gut and oral cavity) within the body. Change in the composition of microbiome, may alter the immune system functioning and response. Bacterial strains comprising the microbiome can be identified using whole genome shotgun (WGS) and ribosomal sequencing techniques.


  • A microbiome refers to the collection of bacteria residing in a particular environment within the body.
  • Modification or complete deletion of the microbiome may affect the immune system and lead to the onset and progression of cancer.
  • The gut microbiome for example provides range of benefits to the host including regulation of immune homeostasis.
  • Any alteration of gut microbiota can lead to immune dysregulation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.
  • Akkermansia muciniphila is found in the gut microbiome is not only involved in host metabolism but also induces IgG1 antibodies and antigen-specific T cell immune response in mice.